Excessive motion of the subtalar joint of the feet serves to increase vertical pressures through the lower legs. Over-pronation leads to internal tibial rotation and increases the tractional forces upon the muscles and ligaments while excessive supination reduces the contact surface area of the foot and drives increased pressures up the limbs..
Rest, Ice, Elevation, Compression, and positive-flow massage are required to help alleviate shin pain; running and other strenuous activities should be avoided until the condition is minimized. Shin Splints can frequently be prevented by warming up with an appropriate stretch routine before participating in intense physical activity.
Footwear with hind-foot support and midfoot control in combination with a pressure-reducing insole is a good way to prevent and reduce the effect of shin splints, especially for boxers, football players, runners, or anyone who strikes heavily with the heels or are constantly on their toes. Orthotic insoles are useful in that they help control the foot and reduce excessive plantar pressures and unwanted vibrations. Stability in the frontal plane combined with heel cushioning has been shown to reduce impact ground reaction forces (GRF) while repositioning the force vectors and reducing their magnitude. These changes result in more comfortable weight-bearing during high impact, or long duration activity.